Surface Geophysics Techniques

1. Seismic Methods

a. Refraction
i. P-wave
b. Reflection
i. 2-D
1. P-wave
2. S-wave
3. Vibroseis
1. P-wave
2. S-wave
3. Vibroseis
c. Surface Waves
i. 1-D
1. Passive ReMi
2. Passive MASW
3. Active MASW
1. Passive ReMi
2. Active MASW
d. Earthquake seismology/Seismic Hazard Analysis

2. Magnetics

a. Magnetic locator
b. Total field mapping
i. Proton precession
ii. Cesium vapor
iii. Overhauser
c. Gradient mapping
i. Proton precession
ii. Cesium vapor

3. Electromagnetics

a. Terrain conductivity mapping
i. EM-31
iii. EM-34-3
iv. OhmMapper
b. Metal detection
i. EM-61
1. Standard coil (deep)
2. HH (shallow, high resolution)
ii.TW-6 (intermediate)
iii. White (shallow very high resolution/discrimination)
b. Very Low Frequency-EM
d. Radio Frequency-EM

4. Gravity

a. Absolute gravity
b. Microgravity
i. Mapping

5. Resistivity

a. Sounding
b. Profiling
c. Electrical imaging
i. 2-D
ii. 3-D
d. Spontaneous potential
i. Profiling
e. Mise-a-la-masse
i. Conductive body mapping
ii.Resistive (LNAPL) plume delineation
f. Induced polarization imaging
i. 2-D

6. Radar

a. Impulse radar
i. Low frequency geologic profiling
ii.Intermediate frequency UST and utility detection and mapping
iii. High frequency rebar and concrete imaging
b. Holographic radar
i. High frequency construction materials imaging

7. Thermal Imaging

Surface Geophysics Applications

  • Aquifer/Aquitard Discrimination
  • Bearing Capacity Estimation
  • Boring/Coring Location Clearance
  • Buried Drum Detection
  • Buried Waste Characterization
  • Buried Weapon Detection
  • Cave Detection and Mapping
  • Clay Seam Detection and Mapping
  • Concrete Thickness Determination
  • Dam Seepage Detection and Mapping
  • Dense Hydrocarbon Plume Delineation
  • Depth-To-Rock Profiling
  • Detection of Disseminated Metals
  • Disposal Pit/Trench Delineation
  • Fault and Fracture Delineation
  • Fill Thickness Measurement
  • Firepit Detection
  • Foundation Element Imaging
  • Grave or Burial Detection
  • In-Situ Density Measurement
  • Ionic Contaminant Plume Delineation
  • Landfill or Lagoon Liner Leak Detection
  • Lost keys, coins, jewelry, etc. recovery
  • Light Hydrocarbon Plume Delineation
  • Metals Contamination Mapping
  • Permafrost Thickness Measurement
  • Pipeline Corrosion Studies
  • Pipeline Leak Detection
  • Radiation Contamination Mapping
  • Rebar, Conduit Or Cable Detection
  • Rippability Determination
  • Roadway Pavement Evaluation
  • Saltwater Intrusion Studies
  • Sand and Gravel Deposit Mapping
  • Seismic Damage or Nuisance Evaluation
  • Seismic Hazard Determination
  • Seismic Shaking Spectra Calculation
  • Septic System Detection
  • Stratigraphic Sounding, Profiling or Mapping
  • Subsidence Investigations
  • Uncontained Waste Mapping
  • Underground Mine Mapping
  • Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Detection
  • UST Delineation
  • Utility Mapping
  • Void Detection
  • Water Table Mapping
  • Well Siting (Production or Monitoring)
  • Well, Privy, Or Vent Shaft Detection


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